A. Structure of Emotion
1. Russell (1980) A circumplex model of affect: 28 emotion-denoting adjectives are reduced to a 2D space: pleasure-displeasure and arousal-sleepiness.
- In the same year, Russell and Pratt (1980) also talked about the two dimensions on the meaning that persons attribute to environments.
- Russell and Bullock (1985) followed up on Russell (1980) to show that the two dimensions reveal a basic property of the human conception of emotions, rather than represent an artifact that is due to semantic relations learned along with the emotion lexicon.
- Russell, Weiss, and Mendelsohn (1989) followed up to develop a single-item scale, the Affect Grid, to quickly assess affect along the dimensions of pleasure-displeasure and arousal-sleepiness.
- Feldman (1995) interpreted the 2D as valence-focus and arousal-focus and suggested their relation to Positive Affect and Negative Affect.
- Barrett (2004) followed up on Feldman (1995) to talk about how valence-focus and arousal-focus are related to cognitive structure of emotion language vs. phenomenological experience.
- Extending Russell's model, Larsen, McGraw, and Cacioppo (2001) argued that people can feel happy and sad at the same time; they do not have to experience positive-negative emotions in a bipolar way.
2. Falbo (1977) Multidimensional scaling of power strategies: 16 strategies of "How I Get My Way." reduced to a 2D space: (a) rational/nonrational and (b) direct/indirect.
3. Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991) examined a model of individual differences in adult attachment in which two underlying dimensions, the person's internal model of the self (positive or negative) and the person's internal model of others (positive or negative), were used to define four attachment patterns. (as seen in General Discussion)
4. Wiggins, Phillips, and Trapnell (1989) interpersonal circumplex: dominant/submissive and agreeable/cold-hearted.
- Gurtman (1992) applied this to plot individuals' profiles of high/low trust and high/low Machiavellianism.
6. Abele and Wojciszke (2007) found that a large number of trait names can be organized into the 2D space of agency and communion.
7. Grouzet et al. (2005) found that 11 types of goals can be organized into a 2D space of intrinsic (e.g., self-acceptance, affiliation) versus extrinsic (e.g., financial success, image), and self-transcendent (e.g., spirituality) versus physical (e.g., hedonism). This results has cross-cultural validity.